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WIRE DRAWING 101
Dark Grey Rule

WireDrawing 101® (a service mark of Roger N. Wright) is an industrial short course, offered in public forums, and available on a customized, private basis. Offerings are typically of two-day’s duration, although shorter, more focused presentations have been made available. The course has the objective of providing practical fundamentals of wire and rod processing in a format suitable for process engineers, development engineers, applied researchers, senior technicians, manufacturing supervisors, technical sales staff and manufacturing management. Substantial attention is devoted to practical problem solving, and guest lecturers have been incorporated into the presentation. The course deals with much of the material available in Dr. Wright’s new book, Wire Technology – Process Engineering and Metallurgy, Butterworth-Heinemann (Elsevier), Oxford, 2011 (ISBN 978-0-12-382092-1). This book is described in the Wire Book segment of this website. A representative outline for WireDrawing 101® is set forth below.

Course Outline

  1. Introduction
    1. The general idea and a brief history of the technology
    2. Twentieth century equipment concepts
    3. Basic engineering variables
  2. The starting material - redraw rod
    1. Rod production overview
    2. Rod rolling passes
      1. Roll pass design
      2. Rod quality issues related to roll pass design
    3. Drawability of rod
      1. Defining and measuring drawability
      2. Predicting drawability with practical tests
  3. Metallurgical issues
    1. Relevant wire and rod properties
      1. Tensile tests and derived properties
      2. Compression, bending and torsion tests
      3. Springback and related properties
    2. Steels
      1. Low carbon
      2. High carbon
      3. Stainless
    3. Copper
    4. Aluminum
    5. Selected specialty alloys
  4. Basic wire drawing mechanics
    1. Stress and strain
    2. Friction and lubrication
    3. A Simple wire drawing process model
      1. The Model layout
      2. The role of delta or pass geometry
      3. The drawing stress equation
        1. Uniform work
        2. Redundant work
        3. Friction work
      4. Die pressure, die wear and related issues
      5. Centerline tension, center bursting and related issues
      6. Deformation before and after die contact
      7. Summary of the effects of delta on drawing behavior
      8. Back stress
  5. The role of temperature in drawing
    1. Contributions to the drawing temperature
      1. Starting temperature
      2. Deformation heating
      3. Frictional heating
    2. Modeling and estimating the drawing temperature
    3. Measuring the drawing temperature
    4. Interpass cooling
    5. Illustrative effects of drawing temperature
      1. Lubricant properties
      2. Copper annealing response
      3. Steel tensile strength
      4. Residual stress
  6. The role of drawing speed
    1. Overview of the drawing speed spectrum
      1. Acceleration during drawing
      2. Motivations for increased speed
      3. Slow speed contexts
        1. Startup
        2. Tandem operations
    2. The effect of drawing speed on temperature
    3. The effect of drawing speed on lubrication
  7. Friction, lubrication and wire surface quality
    1. Modes of lubrication and related friction response
    2. Rod surface conditioning issues
      1. Descaling and pickling
      2. Shaving
      3. Coating
    3. Characterizing with microscopy
      1. Thick film lubrication
      2. Boundary lubrication
      3. Crow’s feet and sticking friction
      4. Handling damage
    4. Effects on wire properties
      1. Fracture and fatigue
      2. Enameling
      3. Aesthetic considerations
  8. Drawing die and pass schedule design
    1. General aspects of die and pass schedule design: the role of delta
    2. Common die materials
      1. Carbide
      2. Diamond
        1. Natural
        2. Synthetic
        3. Single-crystalline, fine grained, coarse grained
    3. The elements of die design and their purpose
      1. Drawing cone
      2. Bell
      3. Bearing or land
      4. Back relief
      5. Blends
    4. Pressure dies
    5. Die wear and die life
    6. Pass schedule concepts
      1. Standard gage basis
      2. Constant delta basis
      3. Constant ratio of draw stress to breaking stress
      4. Constant temperature basis
      5. Slip schedule basis
        1. Defining slip
        2. Slip schedule design
        3. Pros and cons
        4. No-slip systems
  9. Additional considerations
    1. In-process annealing
    2. Fines and their effect on lubrication and surface quality
    3. Cleaning
    4. Issues in fine and ultra-fine drawing practice
  10. The future
    1. Current trends in wire drawing
    2. Remarks on current literature and equipment development
 
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